Keywords: Africa, Trade, African Continental Free Trade Area, AfCFTA, Investment, Economic Growth, Border Regulations

Across the African continent, the wheels of commerce often find themselves mired in bureaucratic tape. Whether it’s the red tape of acquiring an investment permit or the physical tape of customs checks at border crossings, these barriers have long hindered the continent’s economic growth. Yet, a landmark agreement – the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) – aims to reshape these dynamics and boost intra-African trade and investment.

Navigating Barriers to Trade and Investment in Africa

Suppose an African textile giant wants to set up a subsidiary in a neighbouring country. This ambitious goal could be stymied by months-long approval processes, visa restrictions hampering expert workforce mobility, or non-recognition of professional qualifications. Even after surmounting these obstacles, logistical issues like border congestion and burdensome paperwork could disrupt operations. This is the reality of cross-border commerce in Africa, contributing to the continent having some of the strictest borders globally.

The Promise of AfCFTA

Enter the AfCFTA. This ambitious agreement aims to establish a single market across the continent, bringing together 54 countries, 1.3 billion people, and a combined GDP of $3.4 trillion. By reducing trade and investment barriers and fostering competition, AfCFTA seeks to make the continent more attractive to regional value chains and investors.

The Potential Economic and Social Benefits

World Bank research suggests that AfCFTA could yield significant economic and social benefits through accelerated economic growth, increased income, and poverty reduction. This agreement might drive economic diversification and industrialisation, reducing dependence on a few commodities like copper, oil, and coffee. While the benefits will vary across countries, women and skilled workers stand to gain the most.

Looking Forward: From Ambition to Implementation

Much, however, hinges on the successful negotiation and implementation of AfCFTA’s most ambitious objectives. As member nations look ahead, their commitment and leadership in fulfilling the promises of AfCFTA should be a priority. With the first phase effective since January 2021, aiming to progressively eliminate tariffs on 90% of goods and reduce barriers to service trade, the potential for growth is immense.


If fully realised, AfCFTA has the potential to be a true game-changer for Africa’s economy. By 2035, the World Bank projects that successful implementation could lift 40 million people out of extreme poverty and increase real income by 7%. Around two-thirds of this potential $450 billion increase in income could come from reducing border delays and lowering trade costs, making it easier for African businesses to integrate into regional and global supply chains.

As we journey through this historic moment in Africa’s economic story, your insights and questions are most welcome. Let’s continue the dialogue and delve deeper into the fascinating world of finance and trade.

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